> / =!"#$%Guinier Plot: a Light Scattering Primer
Introduction
This is intended as a first light scattering experiment. The variation of scattered intensity with scattering angle will be exploited to measure the size of a particle. It gives us a chance to learn some aspects of light scattering that we can later apply to more complicated experiments that produce not only a size, but also a molecular weight and osmotic second virial coefficient.
Orientation
There are many kinds of light scatterGuinier Plot: a Light Scattering Primer
Introduction
This is intended as a first light scattering experiment. The variation of scattered intensity with scattering angle will be exploited to measure the size of a particle. It gives us a chance to learn some aspects of light scattering that we can later apply to more complicated experiments that produce not only a size, but also a molecular weight and osmotic second virial coefficient.
Orientation
There are many kinds of light scattering. If we limit ourselves just to the methods intended for solutions, there are two broad categories:
Static light scattering
Alias: total intensity light scattering, or just plain ol light scattering
Relies on the intensity of scattered light and its variation with concentration of polymer and/or scattering angle.
Can produce thermodynamic data: molecular weight and virial coefficient
Can produce size (for sizes > about 10 nm)
The size returned is the socalled radius of gyration, Rg.
Dynamic light scattering
Alias: quasielastic light scattering, photon correlation spectroscopy, Brillouin scattering (a special variant).
Relies on rapid fluctuations in the scattered signal.
Can measure a transport property, the mutual diffusion coefficient, absolutely.
This size is easily converted to a hydrodynamic radius, Rh
The size range is very wide < 1 nm to >500 nm
This document is devoted to the simplest type of static light scattering. We will see how to obtain an approximate size from a single concentration (very dilute!) of a particle.
Primary Observation
If you sit in a movie theater, in the front row, and glance back towards the projector, you can see the beam travelling through the air on its way to the screen. However, from the back of the theater, you cannot detect the beam (at least not as easily). One of the reasons for this is that light is preferentially scattered by large particles towards forward directions. The reason for this is shown below:
The picture shows a sphere, comparable to the wavelength of light in size. The dotted lines show the scattering arising from two subvolumes (dark spots) within the sphere. Note the following:
Most of the light passes through the particle unscattered.
The scattered light is much weaker.
The phase of light becomes inverted on scattering.
The light scattered by each subvolume might be out of phase when it reaches a detector located at some angle, q, with respect to the main beam.
If the subvolumes were very close to each other, their scattered signals would arrive in phase.
If we placed the detector at zero angle to the beam (i.e., right in the incident light) the scattered light would not be out of phase (there are limits to thisbasically related to the difference in the refractive index of the particle and that of the surrounding medium).
Theory
The detailed theory of this situation has been worked out in several limits. The one that concerns us is the RayleighGansDebye limit:
Particle not too big
Refractive index not very different from that of the solvent
Single scattering only (scattered light is not rescattered)
The result of a calculation (see Chem 4595 notes) is:
EMBED Equation.3 (1)
The variable q represents the scattering vector magnitude, which is the independent variable in the experiment. It is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 (2)
where n is the solution refractive index and (o is the incident wavelength in vacuo.
The term P(qRg) is sometimes instead denoted P(q) because the principle way to vary q is through the scattering angle q. It is called the particle form factor, and it s always ( 1.. The form factor is the ratio of the scattering intensity at some angle to that which we would measure at q = 0 & . if we could measure at zero angle! The denominator I(0) has to be obtained by extrapolation.
Rg, the socalled radius of gyration, gives the size of the particle. It is extremely important to know that the words radius of gyration do not mean the same thing in polymer science as they do in the rest of science and engineering. In fact, Rg has nothing to do with rotating (or gyrating) a particle about some axis. Instead, for a solid object, Rg is defined through:
EMBED Equation.3 (3)
where r(s) is the density of a subvolume of the particle located at some position s from the particle center of mass. Thus, Rg is the massweighted root mean square distance of all subvolumes in a particle from the center of mass. Survivors of Chem 4595 have had a chance to play with this equation. For a sphere of radius R it can be shown that
EMBED Equation.3 (4)
Finally, its important to note that Equation 1 is valid for any particle shape, as long as the dimensionless product qRg << 1 (i.e., the equation is valid in the lowangle or longwavelength limit).
What it all means
Equation 1 suggests that we are to measure the intensity as a function of q (which we can vary either by angle q or by wavelength lo, but much more commonly via q ). From this we can obtain Rg. There are several practical ways to do this. One is the slope/intercept method: one plots I(q) vs. q2 and, from some function (you figure it out!) of slope and intercept obtains Rg. A better method is to rely on the Guinier plot. Guinier was a very early light scatterer (Xrays, actually) from France. His 1955 textbook (in English) is still a very valuable source of information, and still widely cited. The plot named after him takes advantage of the fact that
ln(1x) ( x
Then, clearly we get:
EMBED Equation.3
The beauty of Guinier plots is that the intercept term vanishes; even if you muff the estimation of I(0) you get Rg right. You should use the Guinier plot instead of the slope/intercept method. The miracle of logarithms removes a potential source of error.provided you have data at low enough values of q.
Guinier.doc
9/26/97
Guinier PAGE 4
q2/cm2
Incident Light
Scattered Light
Detector
q
ln(I(q))
EMBED Equation.3
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Static light scattering (SLS)
Alias: total intensity light scattering, or just plain ol light scattering.
Relies on the intensity of scattered light and its variation with concentration of polymer and/or scattering angle.
Can produce thermodynamic data: molecular weight and virial coefficient.
Can produce size (for sizes > about 10 nm).
The size returned is the socalled radius of gyration , Rg.
Dynamic light scattering (DLS)
Alias: quasielastic light scattering, photon correlation spectroscopy, Brillouin scattering (a special variant).
Relies on rapid fluctuations in the scattered signal.
Can measure a transport property, the mutual diffusionDd
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This document is devoted to the simplest type of static light scattering. We will see how to obtain an approximate size from a single concentration (very dilute!) of a particle.
Primary Observation
If you sit in a movie theater, in the front row, and glance back towards the projector, you can see the beam travelling through the air on its way to the screen. However, from the back of the theater, you cannot detect the beam (at least not as easily). One of the reasons for this is that light is preferentially scattered by large particles towards forward directions. The reason may be understood with the help of the diagram below:
The picture shows a sphere, comparable to the wavelength of light in size. The dotted lines show the scattering arising from two subvolumes (dark spots) within the sphere. Note the following:
Most of the light passes through the particle unscattered.
The scattered light is much weaker.
The phase of light gets inverted on scattering.
The light scattered by one subvolume might be out of phase with that scattered by another subvolume when both reach detector located at some angle, q, with respect to the main beam. This is because the light travels different distances to reach the detector.
If the subvolumes were very close to each other, their scattered signals would arrive in phase.
If the detector were at zero angle to the beam (i.e., right in the incident light) the scattered light would not be out of phase (there are limits to this basically related to the difference in the refractive index of the particle and that of the surrounding medium).
One would never (OK almost never) actually place the detector at zero angle. It will ruin the experiment& .and it will be deleterious to your health if I catch you.
Theory
The detailed theory of this situation has been worked out in several limits. The one that concerns us is the RayleighGansDebye limit:
Particle not too big
Refractive index not very different from that of the solvent
Single scattering only (scattered light is not rescattered)
We will also assume the particles are very dilute. In principle, one should repeat the experiment at lower concentration to ascertain this. The result of a calculation (see Chem 4595 notes) is:
EMBED Equation.3 (1)
The variable q represents the scattering vector magnitude, which is the independent variable in the experiment. It is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 (2)
where n is the solution refractive index and (o is the incident wavelength in vacuo.
The term P(qRg) is sometimes instead denoted P(q) because the principle way to vary q is through the scattering angle q. It is called the particle form factor, and it s always ( 1. The form factor is the ratio of the scattering intensity at some angle to that which we would measure at q = 0 & . if we could measure at zero angle! The denominator I(0) has to be obtained by extrapolation.
Rg, the socalled radius of gyration, gives the size of the particle. It is extremely important to know that the words radius of gyration do not mean the same thing in polymer science as they do in the rest of science and engineering. In fact, Rg has nothing to do with rotating (or gyrating) a particle about some axis. Instead, for a solid object, Rg is defined through:
EMBED Equation.3 (3)
where r(s) is the density of a subvolume of the particle located at some position vector s from the particle center of mass. Thus, Rg is the root mean square of massweighted distances of all subvolumes in a particle from the center of mass. Survivors of Chem 4595 have had a chance to play with this equation. For a sphere of radius R it can be shown that
EMBED Equation.3 (4)
It is important to note that Equation 1 is valid for any particle shape, as long as the dimensionless product qRg << 1 (i.e., the equation is valid in the lowangle or longwavelength limit).
Finally, we reiterate that these equations hold at infinite dilution.
What it all means
Equation 1 suggests that we are to measure the intensity as a function of q (which we can vary either by angle q or by wavelength lo, but much more commonly the former). From this we can obtain Rg. There are several practical ways to do this. One is the slope/intercept method: one plots I(q) vs. q2 and obtains Rg from some function of slope and intercept (you figure it out!). A better method is to rely on the Guinier plot. Guinier was a very early light scatterer (Xrays, actually) from France. His 1950 s textbook (in English) is still a very valuable source of information, and still widely cited. The plot named after him takes advantage of the fact that
ln(1x) ( x
Then, clearly we get:
EMBED Equation.3
The beauty of Guinier plots is that the intercept term vanishes; even if you muff the estimation of I(0) you get Rg right. You should use the Guinier plot iOh+'0
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Experimental Details
Gathering the data in this SLS experiment will illustrate several of the pro/ =!"#$%Guinier Plot: a Light Scattering Primer
Introduction
This is intended as a first light scattering experiment. The variation of scattered intensity with scattering angle will be exploited to measure the size of a particle. It gives us a chance to learn some aspects of light scattering that we can later apply to more complicated experiments that produce not only a size, but also a molecular weight and osmotic second virial coefficient.
Orientation
There are many kinds of light scattering. If we limit ourselves just to the methods intended for solutions, there are two broad categories:
Static light scattering (SLS)
Alias: total intensity light scattering, or just plain ol light scattering
Relies on the intensity of scattered light and its variation with concentration of polymer and/or scattering angle.
Can produce thermodynamic data: molecular weight and virial coefficient
Can produce size (for sizes > about 10 nm)
The size returned is the socalled radius of gyration , Rg.
Dynamic light scattering (DLS)
Alias: quasielastic light scattering, photon correlation spectroscopy, Brillouin scattering (a special variant).
Relies on rapid fluctuations in the scattered signal.
Can measure a transport property, the mutual diffusion coefficient, absolutely.
This size is easily converted to a hydrodynamic radius, Rh
The size range is very wide < 1 nm to >500 nm
This document is devoted to the simplest type of static light scattering. We will see how to obtain an approximate size from a single concentration (very dilute!) of a particle.
Primary Observation
If you sit in a movie theater, in the front row, and glance back towards the projector, you can see the beam travelling through the air on its way to the screen. However, from the back of the theater, you cannot detect the beam (at least not as easily). One of the reasons for this is that light is preferentially scattered by large particles towards forward directions. The reason for this is shown below:
The picture shows a sphere, comparable to the wavelength of light in size. The dotted lines show the scattering arising from two subvolumes (dark spots) within the sphere. Note the following:
Most of the light passes through the particle unscattered.
The scattered light is much weaker.
The phase of light becomes inverted on scattering.
The light scattered by each subvolume might be out of phase when it reaches a detector located at some angle, q, with respect to the main beam.
If the subvolumes were very close to each other, their scattered signals would arrive in phase.
If we placed the detector at zero angle to the beam (i.e., right in the incident light) the scattered light would not be out of phase (there are limits to this basically related to the difference in the refractive index of the particle and that of the surrounding medium).
Theory
The detailed theory of this situation has been worked out in several limits. The one that concerns us is the RayleighGansDebye limit:
Particle not too big
Refractive index not very different from that of the solvent
Single scattering only (scattered light is not rescattered)
The result of a calculation (see Chem 4595 notes) is:
EMBED Equation.3 (1)
The variable q represents the scattering vector magnitude, which is the independent variable in the experiment. It is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 (2)
where n is the solution refractive index and (o is the incident wavelength in vacuo.
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Rg, the socalled radius of gyration, gives the size of the particle. It is extremely important to know that the words radius of gyration do not mean the same thing in polymer science as they do in the rest of science and engineering. In fact, Rg has nothing to do with rotating (or gyrating) a particle about some axis. Instead, for a solid object, Rg is defined through:
EMBED Equation.3 (3)
where r(s) is the density of a subvolume of the particle located at some position s from the particle center of mass. Thus, Rg is the massweighted root mean square distance of all subvolumes in a particle from the center of mass. Survivors of Chem 4595 have had a chance to play with this equation. For a sphere of radius R it can be shown that
EMBED Equation.3 (4)
Finally, it s important to note that Equation 1 is valid for any particle shape, as long as the dimensionless product qRg << 1 (i.e., the equation is valid in the lowangle or longwavelength limit).
What it all means
Equation 1 suggests that we are to measure the intensity as a function of q (which we can vary either by angle q or by wavelength lo, but much more commonly via q ). From this we can obtain Rg. There are several practical ways to do this. One is the slope/intercept method: one plots I(q) vs. q2 and, from some function (you figure it out!) of slope and intercept obtains Rg. A better method is to rely on the Guinier plot. Guinier was a very early light scatterer (Xrays, actually) from France. His 1955 textbook (in English) is still a very valuable source of information, and still widely cited. The plot named after him takes advantage of the fact that
ln(1x) ( x
Then, clearly we get:
EMBED Equation.3
The beauty of Guinier plots is that the intercept term vanishes; even if you muff the estimation of I(0) you get Rg right. You should use the Guinier plot instead of the slope/intercept method. The miracle of logarithms removes a potential source of error& .provided you have data at low enough values of q.
Experimental Details
Gathering the data in this SLS experiment will illustrate several of the problems of LS generally.
LS does not discriminate dust scatters a lot! (This may not be too big a problem in the present set of experiments, because we choose scatterer that is almost as big as dust anyway).
LS is a weak effect it s important to remove stray light, usually reflected from some surface, such as the cell (especially scratchy cells). This is because LS signal is about 10,000 times weaker than any reflected beam.
It s important to eliminate (to the extent possible) the backreflected beam.
There are two incident beams. The main one from the laser (going right) and a weaker reflected beam (going left) that originates as the main beam exits the cell. The scattering angle for the main beam is q but the scattering angle for the weaker beam is 180q. Various strategies are used to remove this problem. One can try to absorb the beam before it gets reflected at the cellair interface (with some effort, even the reflection from the samplecell interface, or interior interface, can be reduced). One can aim the reflected beam away from the detector.
The signal is proportional to the volume detected& .and this can depend on angle.
In the conventional apparatus we will use, the detected volume is inversely proportional to sin(q).
Experimental Procedure
You will be given a suspension of latex particles (latex is a form of polymer in which many chains are grouped together in a nice, little colloidally sized ball which disperses in a solvent).
You will measure the raw photocurrent, G(q) , from a light sensing photomultiplier tube as a function of scattering angle. (For weakly scattering samples, one might instead to measure the photon count rate i.e., count the number of photons hitting the detector over some welldefined time).
Repeat Step 2 for the solvent.
Compute I(q) thusly:
EMBED Equation.3
Convert the various q into q values, using the following information
nwater = 1.33 ( nsuspension
Laser Type Color (o
Diode Red Check (usually about 670 nm)
HeliumNeon Red 632.8 nm
HeliumNeon Green 543.5 nm
Argon ion Green 514.5 nm (this is the brightest green line)
Argon ion Blue 488 nm (this is the brightest blue line)
Frequency
Doubled Diode Green 532 nm
Guinier.doc
9/26/97
Guinier PAGE 5
q2/cm2
Incident Light
Scattered Light
Detector
q
ln(I(q))
EMBED Equation.3
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Laser
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LS does not discriminate dust scatters a lot! (This may not be too big a problem in the present set of experiments, because we choose scatterer that is almost as big as dust anyway).
LS is a weak effect it s important to remove stray light, usually reflected from some surface, such as the cell (especially scratchy cells). This is because the LS signal is about 10,000 times weaker than any reflected beam.
It s important to eliminate (to the extent possible) the backreflected beam.
There are two incident beams. The main one from the laser (going right) and a weaker reflected beam (going left) that originates from reflection as the main beam exits the cell. The scattering angle for the main beam is q but the scattering angle for the weaker beam is 180q. Various strategies are used to remove this problem. One can try to absorb the beam before it gets reflected at the cellair interface (with some effort, even the reflection from the samplecell interface, or intHs9i{NVou>blo)qR$ʿ#.覷y%r&S^SiKp>BP7^/b6I0.P!Nwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwr(_#ȤDd
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The signal is proportional to the volume detected& .and this can depend on angle.
In the conventional apparatus we will use, the detected volume is inversely proportional to sin(q).
Experimental Procedure
You will be given a suspension of latex particles (latex is a form of polymer in which many chains are grouped together in a nice, little colloidally sized ball that disperses in a solvent).
You will measure the raw photocurrent, G(q) , from a light sensing photomultiplier tube as a function of scattering angle. (For weakly scattering samples, or for greater precision, one might instead to measure the photon count rate i.e., count the numberX\dlnprtĒpr<b~Rd ~(DRVZ\@DHdzV@Bhjlj EHUmHjj7
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Repeat Step 2 for the solvent.
Compute I(q) thusly:
EMBED Equation.3
Convert the various q into q values, using the following information
nwater = 1.33 ( nsuspension
Laser Type Color (o
Diode Red Check (usually about 670 nm)
HeliumNeon Red 632.8 nm
HeliumNeon Green 543.5 nm
Argon ion Green 514.5 nm (this is the brightest green line)
Argon ion Blue 488 nm (this is the brightest blue line)
Frequency
Doubled Diode Green 532 nm
Make a Guinier plot. Try the slope/intercept method also.
One Final Note
There are two general strategies in static light scattering: 1) get the data at a low enough angle so that linear behavior is observed; and, 2) obtain data at a BC 5Rw~e$O'p/͜ojܠ+ߙs~B)#C۶ɲɲL{pmo60#v, ,vbEC>A8U/S@Z*B>1gJ}nV캖5͖_ٚ榶5W7Rm/y/F'k5nuͼ!]>5+Wtÿu=G3wQ{/O]a.(s%Xu*RJUv9ǟ8gҼЙ~*uw9#f*c*sK[ܚﰺwg0vAr3z1*aOSjJ^ל'L2ϬF=.;G3Zrz;ϧ+}Nv1[GwˢGaэedR4'oqlDdB
SAhigher angle and use the actual, nonlinear form functions, which are derived and tabulated in classic textbooks like the one by Huglin. The tradeoff depends on one s ability to obtain dustfree and straylightfree data at very low angles. The problem would be worst for large scatterers that are (because of their optical properties) weak scatterers. The problem is also exacerbated when solvents having very low or very high refractive indexes must be used.
We are clearly following the first strategy in our attempt to get a linear Guinier plot. You may find the data really aren t totally linear, however. In that case, you can treat just the linear part of the regime if you have enough data points there. If you do not, we ll have a go at the other strategy, fitting a complex equation to the available, nonlinear data. Another possibility would be to fit a polynomial to the Guinier plot, keeping only the linear term in the fit.
Guinier.doc
9/26/97
Guinier PAGE 6
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